Animals Pictures And Names BiographyAccording to an exhibition at Tate Britain, "His influence has forever changed our understanding and interpretation of the world, and can be found in many diverse fields, from Marcel Duchamp's painting Nude Descending a Staircase and countless works by Francis Bacon, to the blockbuster film The Matrix and Philip Glass's opera The Photographer."
Étienne-Jules Marey — recorded the first series of live action photos with a single camera by a method of chronophotography; influenced and was influenced by Muybridge's work
Thomas Eakins — American artist who worked with and continued Muybridge's motion studies, and incorporated the findings into his own artwork
William Dickson — credited as inventor of the motion picture camera
Thomas Edison — developed and owned patents for motion picture cameras
Marcel Duchamp — artist, painted Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2, inspired by multiple-exposure photography
Harold Eugene Edgerton — pioneered stroboscopic and high speed photography and film, producing an Oscar-winning short movie and many striking photographic sequences
Francis Bacon — painted from Muybridge photographs
John Gaeta — used the principles of Muybridge photography to create the bullet time slow-motion technique of the 1999 movie The Matrix.
Steven Pippin — so-called Young British Artist who converted a row of laundromat washing machines into sequential cameras in the style of Muybridge
Wayne McGregor — UK choreographer collaborated with composer Mark-Anthony Turnage and artist Mark Wallinger on a piece entitled "Undance", inspired by Muybridge's 'action verbs'
Exhibitions and collections
A collection of Muybridge's equipment, including his original biunial slide lantern and zoopraxiscope projector, can be viewed at the Kingston Museum in Kingston upon Thames, South West London. The University of Pennsylvania Archives in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, hold a large collection of Muybridge's photographs, equipment, and correspondence. Stanford University also hold numerous photographs of his work.
In 1991, the Addison Gallery of American Art at Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts, hosted a major exhibition of Muybridge's work, plus the works of many other artists who had been influenced by him. The show later traveled to other venues and a book-length exhibition catalogue was also published. The Addison Gallery has significant holdings of Muybridge's photographic work.
In 2000–2001, the Smithsonian Institution National Museum of American History presented the exhibition Freeze Frame: Eadweard Muybridge's Photography of Motion, plus an online virtual exhibit.
From 10 April through 18 July 2010, the Corcoran Gallery of Art in Washington, DC, mounted a major retrospective of Muybridge's work entitled Helios: Eadweard Muybridge in a Time of Change. The exhibit received favourable reviews from major publications including The New York Times. The exhibition traveled in autumn 2010 to the Tate Britain, Millbank, London, and also appeared at the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art (SFMOMA).
An exhibition of important items bequeathed by Muybridge to his birthplace of Kingston upon Thames, entitled Muybridge Revolutions, opened at the Kingston Museum on 18 September 2010 (exactly a century since the first Muybridge exhibition at the Museum) and ran until 12 February 2011. The full collection is held by the Museum and Archives.
Legacy and representation in other media
Many of Muybridge's photographic sequences have been published since the 1950s as artists' reference books. Cartoon animators often use his photos as a reference when drawing their characters in motion.
The filmmaker Thom Andersen made a 1974 documentary titled Eadweard Muybridge, Zoopraxographer, describing his life and work.
The composer Philip Glass's opera The Photographer (1982) is based on Muybridge's murder trial, with a libretto including text from the court transcript.
In 1985, the music video for Larry Gowan's single "(You're a) Strange Animal" prominently featured animation rotoscoped from Muybridge's work. In 1986, a galloping horse sequence was used in the background of the John Farnham music video for the song "Pressure Down".
The Dutch poet Willem van Toorn published a collection of poems titled The Human Figure in Motion in his book De aardse republiek (1988). These poems reflect upon three sequences of Muybridge.
Since 1991, the company Optical Toys has published Muybridge sequences in the form of movie flipbooks.
The play Studies in Motion: The Hauntings of Eadweard Muybridge (2006) was a co-production between Vancouver's Electric Company Theatre and the University of British Columbia Theatre. While blending fiction with fact, it conveys Muybridge's obsession with cataloguing animal motion. The production started touring in 2010.
The Canadian poet Rob Winger wrote Muybridge's Horse: A Poem in Three Phases (2007). The long poem won the CBC Literary Award for Poetry and was nominated for the Governor General's Award for Literature, the Trillium Book Award for Poetry, and the Ottawa Book Award. It expressed his life and obsessions in a 'poetic-photographic' style.
To accompany the 2010 Tate exhibition, the BBC commissioned a TV programme, "The Weird World of Eadweard Muybridge", as part of Imagine, the arts series presented by Alan Yentob.
On 9 April 2012, the 182nd anniversary of his birth, a Google Doodle honoured Muybridge with an animation based on the photographs of the horse in motion.
History of film
^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Arthur P. Shimamura, "Muybridge in Motion: Travels in Art, Psychology, and Neurology", History of Photography, Volume 26, Number 4, 2002, pp. 341–350.
Jump up ^ "Eadweard Muybridge (British photographer)". Britannica. Retrieved 17 July 2009. "English photographer important for his pioneering work in photographic studies of motion and in motion-picture projection."
Jump up ^ Riesz, Megan. "Did Eadweard J. Muybridge get away with murder?". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 16 June 2012.
^ Jump up to: a b Solnit (2003), River of Shadows, p. 7
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Jump up ^ Paul Hill Eadweard Muybridge Phaidon, 2001
^ Jump up to: a b Adam, (ed.), Hans Christian (2010). Eadweard Muybridge, the human and animal locomotion photographs (1. Aufl. ed.). Köln: Taschen. p. 20. ISBN 978-3-8365-0941-1.
Jump up ^ Anderson, Maybanke (2001). "My Sprig of Rosemary". In Jan Roberts & Beverley Kingston. Maybanke, a woman's voice: the collected work of Maybanke Selfe - Wolstenholme - Anderson, 1845–1927. Avalon Beach, N.S.W.: Ruskin Rowe Press. ISBN 0-9587095-3-X. pp. 24–25
Jump up ^ Solnit (2003), River of Shadows, p. 29
Jump up ^ Solnit (2003), River of Shadows, p. 30
Jump up ^ Solnit (2003), River of Shadows, pp. 27–28
Jump up ^ Brookman, Philip; Marta Braun, Andy Grundberg, Corey Keller, Rebecca Solnit (2010). Helios : Eadweard Muybridge in a time of change. [Göttingen, Germany]: Steidl. p. 29. ISBN 978-3-86521-926-8.
Jump up ^ Solnit (2003), River of Shadows, pp. 38–39
Jump up ^ Brian Clegg (2007). The Man Who Stopped Time: The Illuminating Story of Eadweard Muybridge : Pioneer Photographer, Father of the Motion Picture, Murderer, p. 90
^ Jump up to: a b Solnit (2003), River of Shadows, p. 39
^ Jump up to: a b Solnit (2003), River of Shadows, p. 40
Jump up ^ Eadweard Muybridge. Muybridge's Complete Human and Animal Locomotion: All 781 Plates from the 1887 Animal Locomotion, Courier Dover Publications, 1979
Jump up ^ Lance Day, Ian McNeil. Biographical Dictionary of the History of Technology, p. 884. Routledge, 2003
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Jump up ^ Peter Hartlaub (2012-10-30). "Peter Hartlaub, "Woodward's Gardens Comes to Life in New Book", ''San Francisco Chronicle'' (October 30, 2012)". Sfgate.com. Retrieved 2014-02-23.
Jump up ^ James Kaiser (2007) Yosemite, The Complete Guide: Yosemite National Park, p. 104
Jump up ^ Paula Fleming and Judith Lusky, The North American Indians in Early Photographs, Dorset Press, 1988, p. 242 (source: Ralph W. Andrews, 1964 and David Mattison, 1985)
Jump up ^ Bowdoin, Jeffrey. "West Coast Lighthouses of the 19th Century". U.S. Coast Guard History Program. United States Coast Guard. Retrieved 10 May 2012.
Jump up ^ Fleming and Lusky (1988), p. 46
Jump up ^ Bullough, William A. (Spring–Summer 1989). "Eadweard Muybridge and the Old San Francisco Mint: Archival Photographs as Historical Documents". California History 68 (1/2): 2–13. Retrieved 11 May 2012.
Jump up ^ "Archive – City Views of San Francisco". Central Pacific Railroad Photographic History Museum. CPRR.org. Retrieved 2012-04-11.
Jump up ^ "Eadweard Muybridge and His Influence on Horse Art". Your-guide-to-gifts-for-horse-lovers.com. Retrieved 9 April 2012.
^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h Mitchell Leslie (May–June 2001). "The Man Who Stopped Time". Stanford Magazine. Retrieved 21 June 2010.
Jump up ^ Williams, Alan Larson (1992) Republic of Images: A History of French Filmmaking, Harvard University Press
^ Jump up to: a b c "Capturing the Moment", p. 2, Freeze Frame: Eadward Muybridge's Photography of Motion, October 7, 2000-March 15, 2001, National Museum of American History, accessed 9 April 2012
Jump up ^ Muybridge, Eadweard; Mozley, Anita Ventura (foreword) (1887). Muybridge's Complete Human and Animal Locomotion: All 781 Plates from the 1887 Animal Locomotion. Courier Dover Publications. p. xvii. ISBN 978-0-486-23792-3. Retrieved 15 June 2012.
Jump up ^ He had discovered letters between them, one of which included a photo of the son, with the caption "Little Harry." The (Washington, D.C.) Examiner, Oct. 17, 2012, p. 8.
Jump up ^ Haas, Robert Bartlett (1976). Muybridge: Man in Motion. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-02464-8.
^ Jump up to: a b c d Brookman, Philip; Marta Braun, Andy Grundberg, Corey Keller, Rebecca Solnit (2010). Helios : Eadweard Muybridge in a time of change. [Göttingen, Germany]: Steidl (with Corcoran Gallery of Art). p. 69. ISBN 978-3-86521-926-8.
Jump up ^ Rebecca Solnit, River of Shadows: Eadweard Muybridge and the Technological Wild West, New York: Viking, 2003, p. 148
^ Jump up to: a b Brian Clegg The Man Who Stopped Time: The Illuminating Story of Eadweard Muybridge : Pioneer Photographer, Father of the Motion Picture, Murderer, Joseph Henry Press, 2007
Jump up ^ John Sanford (12 February 2003). "Cantor exhibit showcases motion-study photography". Stanford Report. Retrieved 2010-02-03.
Jump up ^ Selected Items from the Eadweard Muybridge Collection (University of Pennsylvania Archives and Records Center) "The Eadweard Muybridge Collection at the University of Pennsylvania Archives contains 702 of the 784 plates in his Animal Locomotion study"
^ Jump up to: a b "Eadweard Muybridge". Saylor.org. p. 4. Retrieved 18 August 2013.
Jump up ^ Brookman, Philip; Marta Braun, Andy Grundberg, Corey Keller, Rebecca Solnit (2010). Helios : Eadweard Muybridge in a time of change. [Göttingen, Germany]: Steidl. p. 91. ISBN 978-3-86521-926-8.
Jump up ^ Adam, (ed.), Hans Christian (2010). Eadweard Muybridge, the human and animal locomotion photographs (1. Aufl. ed.). Köln: Taschen. p. 14. ISBN 978-3-8365-0941-1.
Jump up ^ Clegg, Brian (2007). The Man Who Stopped Time. Joseph Henry Press. ISBN 0-309-10112-3.
Jump up ^ Brookman, Philip; Marta Braun, Andy Grundberg, Corey Keller, Rebecca Solnit (2010). Helios : Eadweard Muybridge in a time of change. [Göttingen, Germany]: Steidl. p. 100. ISBN 978-3-86521-926-8.
Jump up ^ Brookman, Philip; Marta Braun, Andy Grundberg, Corey Keller, Rebecca Solnit (2010). Helios : Eadweard Muybridge in a time of change. [Göttingen, Germany]: Steidl. p. 101. ISBN 978-3-86521-926-8.
Jump up ^ Stephen Herbert, Marta Braun, Paul Hill, Anne McCormack "Eadweard Muybridge: the Kingston Museum bequest", The Projection Box, 2004
Jump up ^ Eadweard Muybridge. Tate. Retrieved on 2013-08-16.
Jump up ^ "Muybridge at Tate Britain". Tate.org.uk. Retrieved 9 April 2012.
Jump up ^ Thomas, Rebecca (25 November 2011). "McGregor, Turnage and Wallinger unite for dance debut". BBC News. Retrieved 10 May 2012.
Jump up ^ A form of lantern which can project two images at once, used to produce fade and dissolve effects.
Jump up ^ "Eadweard Muybridge, 1830 – 1904, Collection, 1870 – 1981". Archives.upenn.edu. Retrieved 9 April 2012.
Jump up ^ Sheldon, James L.; Jock Reynolds (1991). Motion and Document—Sequence and Time: Eadweard Muybridge and Contemporary American Photography. Andover, Massachusetts: Addison Gallery of American Art.
Jump up ^ "About the Collection". Addison Gallery of American Art (website). Philips Academy, Andover. Retrieved 13 June 2011.
Jump up ^ "Freeze Frame: Eadweard Muybridge's Photography of Motion — online exhibit". Virtual National Museum of American History (website). National Museum of American History. Retrieved 13 June 2011.
Jump up ^ Karen Rosenberg (26 April 2010). "A Man Who Stopped Time to Set It in Motion Again". The New York Times.
Jump up ^ "Eadweard Muybridge at Tate Britain, 8 September 2010 – 16 January 2011". Tate.org.uk. Retrieved 9 April 2012. "This exhibition brings together the full range of his art for the first time, and explores the ways in which Muybridge created and honed his remarkable images, which continue to resonate with artists today. Highlights include a seventeen foot panorama of San Francisco and recreations of the zoopraxiscope in action."
Jump up ^ "Kingston Museum – Muybridge Revolutions". Muybridgeinkingston.com. Retrieved 9 April 2012. "This important collection includes Muybridge's original Zoöpraxiscope machine and 68 of only 71 glass Zoöpraxiscope discs known to exist worldwide. In addition, the archive holds many personalised lantern slides, hundreds of collotype prints, rare early albums, Muybridge's own scrapbook in which he charts his entire career, a copy of his epic San Franscisco Panorama; and many other items that make the Kingston Muybridge bequest a collection of major international significance."
Jump up ^ The Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames Muybridge Collection[dead link]
Jump up ^ "Books for figure drawing models and artists (reference books)". Artmodeltips.com, A website for life models and figurative artists. Artmodeltips.com. Retrieved 18 August 2013.
Jump up ^ Eadweard Muybridge (2007). Muybridge's Human Figure in Motion. Dover Publications, Incorporated. ISBN 978-0-486-99771-1. Retrieved 18 August 2013.
Jump up ^ "Times. Imagine: Episode 3, The Weird World of Eadweard Muybrige". Radiotimes.com. Retrieved 2014-02-23.
Jump up ^ Eadweard J Muybridge celebrated in a Google doodle The Guardian, 9 April 2012
Robert Bartlett Haas. Muybridge, Man in Motion, 1976.
Gordon Hendricks. Eadweard Muybridge, Father of the Motion Picture, 1975.
Stephen Herbert (Ed.) Eadweard Muybridge: The Kingston Museum Bequest, 2004 1-903000-07-6.
Anita Ventura Mozley (Ed.) Eadweard Muybridge. The Stanford Years 1872–82, 1972.
Arthur P. Shimamura, "Muybridge in Motion: Travels in Art, Psychology, and Neurology", 2002, History of Photography, Volume 26, Number 4, 341–350.
Rebecca Solnit. River of Shadows: Eadweard Muybridge and the Technological Wild West, 2003 ISBN 0-670-03176-3.
Philip Brookman. Helios: Eadweard Muybridge in a Time of Change, 2010 ISBN 978-3-86521-926-8 (Steidl).
Rebecca Solnit (2003). River of Shadows: Eadweard Muybridge and the Technological Wild West. Viking: New York.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Eadweard Muybridge.
Eadweard Muybridge at the Internet Movie Database
Article on discovered Muybridge photos, March 2012
Time Stands Still, exhibit on Eadward Muybridge and contemporaries, February–May 2003, Cantor Center, Stanford University
Eadweard Muybridge's Animal Locomotion, via Boston Public Library's Flickr collections
Eadweard Muybridge at Who's Who of Victorian Cinema
The Eadweard Muybridge Online Archive, access to most of Muybridge's motion studies, at printable resolutions, along with a growing number of animations.
"Tesseract", 20-Min experimental film expressing Eadweard Muybridge's obsession with time and its images at the turn of the century.
Eadweard Muybridge, Valley of the Yosemite, Sierra Nevada Mountains, and Mariposa Grove of Mammoth Trees, 1872, finding aid and online photo collection, Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley
Eadweard Muybridge, Stereographic Views of San Francisco Bay Area Locations, ca. 1865-ca. 1879, finding aid and online photo collection, Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley
Muybridge, 1872, Yosemite American Indian Life, The Hive
"The Muybridge Collection", Kingston Museum, Kingston upon Thames, Surrey
Muybridge's 11-volume Animal Locomotion Studies and similar publications by E.-J. Marey, The University of South Florida Tampa Library's Special Collections Department
Freezing Time, Film Website, the life of Muybridge, directed by Andy Serkis and written by Keith Stern
"Eadweard Muybridge". Photography. Victoria and Albert Museum. Retrieved 11 November 2007.
Eadweard Muybridge stereoscopic photographs of the Modoc War, via Calisphere, California Digital Library, University of California, Berkeley
Human and Animal Locomotion, via SC Digital Library, University of Southern California.
Teacher's Guide: Eadweard Muybridge, Harold Edgerton, and Beyond: A Study of Motion and Time, 2-part introduction to the work of Muybridge and Edgerton, for high school level, Addison Museum
The short film It Started With Muybridge (1965) is available for free download at the Internet Archive [more]
David Levy, "Muybridge and the Movies", Early American Cinema
Carola Unterberger-Probst, Animation of the first moving pictures in film history, Rhizome
Burns, Paul. The History of the Discovery of Cinematography: An Illustrated Chronology, Pre-cinema history
The Compleat Eadweard Muybridge, extensive illustrated bibliography and links
Lone Mountain College Collection of Stereographs by Eadweard Muybridge, 1867–1880 at The Bancroft Library