Animate Pictures BiographyThe relative number of species contributed to the total by each phylum of animals.
Porifera, Radiata and basal Bilateria
Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the Porifera and Ctenophora diverged before a clade that gave rise to the Bilateria, Cnidaria and Placozoa. Another study based on the presence/absence of introns suggests that Cnidaria, Porifera and Placozoa may be a sister group of Bilateria and Ctenophora.
Orange elephant ear sponge, Agelas clathrodes, in foreground. Two corals in the background: a sea fan, Iciligorgia schrammi, and a sea rod, Plexaurella nutans.
The sponges (Porifera) were long thought to have diverged from other animals early. They lack the complex organization found in most other phyla. Their cells are differentiated, but in most cases not organized into distinct tissues. Sponges typically feed by drawing in water through pores. Archaeocyatha, which have fused skeletons, may represent sponges or a separate phylum. However, a phylogenomic study in 2008 of 150 genes in 29 animals across 21 phyla revealed that it is the Ctenophora or comb jellies which are the basal lineage of animals, at least among those 21 phyla. The authors speculate that sponges—or at least those lines of sponges they investigated—are not so primitive, but may instead be secondarily simplified.
Among the other phyla, the Ctenophora and the Cnidaria, which includes sea anemones, corals, and jellyfish, are radially symmetric and have digestive chambers with a single opening, which serves as both the mouth and the anus. Both have distinct tissues, but they are not organized into organs. There are only two main germ layers, the ectoderm and endoderm, with only scattered cells between them. As such, these animals are sometimes called diploblastic. The tiny placozoans are similar, but they do not have a permanent digestive chamber.With a few exceptions, most notably the sponges (Phylum Porifera) and Placozoa, animals have bodies differentiated into separate tissues. These include muscles, which are able to contract and control locomotion, and nerve tissues, which send and process signals. Typically, there is also an internal digestive chamber, with one or two openings. Animals with this sort of organization are called metazoans, or eumetazoans when the former is used for animals in general.
All animals have eukaryotic cells, surrounded by a characteristic extracellular matrix composed of collagen and elastic glycoproteins. This may be calcified to form structures like shells, bones, and spicules. During development, it forms a relatively flexible framework upon which cells can move about and be reorganized, making complex structures possible. In contrast, other multicellular organisms, like plants and fungi, have cells held in place by cell walls, and so develop by progressive growth. Also, unique to animal cells are the following intercellular junctions: tight junctions, gap junctions, and desmosomes.All animals are heterotrophs, meaning that they feed directly or indirectly on other living things. They are often further subdivided into groups such as carnivores, herbivores, omnivores, and parasites.
Predation is a biological interaction where a predator (a heterotroph that is hunting) feeds on its prey (the organism that is attacked). Predators may or may not kill their prey prior to feeding on them, but the act of predation always results in the death of the prey. The other main category of consumption is detritivory, the consumption of dead organic matter. It can at times be difficult to separate the two feeding behaviours, for example, where parasitic species prey on a host organism and then lay their eggs on it for their offspring to feed on its decaying corpse. Selective pressures imposed on one another has led to an evolutionary arms race between prey and predator, resulting in various antipredator adaptations.The typical lifespan of dogs varies widely among breeds, but for most the median longevity, the age at which half the dogs in a population have died and half are still alive, ranges from 10 to 13 years. Individual dogs may live well beyond the median of their breed.
y name is Kim and I am and always have been very passionate towards animals, I felt and connection with them since a very young age. Everyone always said I had a unique gift with animals and people. I have felt a calling for a long time but always feared the idea of facing what horrible things were happening to them. So with a guilty conscience, I would just feel sad, but do nothing.
Then I happened upon something called Canada Shame a few months ago. Although I NEVER am able to watch those video's activists so bravely record on this subject, something force me to click play, just for a second. I did, one second and stop. it was long enough! the sound that came from that video and the look on the mother seal and her cubs face sent me into hysterics.....for three days i was depressed, had a knot in my stomache, couldnt stop thinking of it and would cry on and off. THEN THE ANGER SET IN......and here we are.....I know why when I share this with other, their first instinct is to not get involved and i know why. its so painful. but look at it this way. it hurts you to know it or see it? what about the pain being experience to the poor helpless creature on the other side of what u are watching, reading or whatever? its a sacrafice im more than willing to make. and the thing is, now that i dont turn away , i feel a sense of relief instead of traumatized...dont get me wrong, i recieve these petitions in my email (1000's)! i dont ever watch anymore. i need to read the articles so i can educate myself enough for the work im doing and i cry while reading it. i sign every one i can and share them all, so i feel it justifies my not being able to watch. i gvie my support If we could all just take the time to remember to do our best to view the world as if through the eyes of a child, what a different world it would be! Children see everything through pure, innocent eyes. They are always curious, everything looks brand new and exciting. Easily they forgive and only want honesty, love and new experiences. They love animals and so enjoy watching, learning and interacting with them. They are truly amazed and cannot get enough of things like that, they view everything with magical , mystical wonder. They would never want to harm or kill something they see with eyes like that!
These children our counting on us to mould, guide and teach , we are failing them!
BioImageXD is a multi-purpose post-processing tool for bioimaging. The software can be used for simple visualization of multi-channel temporal image stacks to complex 3D rendering of multiple channels at once. Animations of 3D renderings can be easily created using virtual camera flying paths or key-frames. Image processing tools include deconvolution, registration and tens of tools for mathematical and logical processing and noise reduction. Analysis tools cover both object-based and voxel-based approaches, with for instance versatile tools for colocalization analysis, numerous segmentation methods with elaborate numerical analyses, and an advanced motion tracking algorithm. All processing and analysis methods can be built into pipelines and run for hundreds of datasets at once with the Batch Processor, and simulated image data can be created for method validation. BioImageXD features an intuitive graphical user interface, designed to enable accurate scientific quality and control, and image processing in high throughput.Biology works at nanoscale, with objects invisible to the human eye. With BioBlender it is possible to show some of the characters that populate our cells, based on scientific data and the highest standard of 3D manipulation. Scientists all over the world study proteins at atomic level and deposit information in the public repository Protein Data Bank, where each molecule is described as the list of its atoms and their 3D coordinates.
With BioBlender users can handle proteins in the 3D space, displaying their surface in a photorealistic way, and elaborate protein movements on the basis of known conformations.
PDB files can be loaded from a user-defined directory or downloaded directly from the PDB site (by inserting the PDB code). The protein is displayed in 3D (as atoms or molecular surface) and the user can calculate and visualize its surface properties, Molecular Lipophilic Potential and Electrostatic Potential. For protein motion, BioBlender calculates intermediates between two conformations using Blender Game Engine. The program gives as output both the intermediate PDB files and the rendered images as a movie.